Assignment 1: assess public organizations’ operations


1. Campbell, J. W. (2018). Efficiency, incentives, and transformational leadership: Understanding collaboration preferences in the public sector (file attached in PDF)

2. McNamara, C. (n.d.). Historical and contemporary theories of management. Free Management Library

Traditional View of Management
There are a variety of views about the term “management”. Traditionally, the term “management” (sometimes referred to as “organizational management” or “business management”) refers to the activities involved in the four general functions listed below.
1) Planning, including identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion of tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning, business planning, project planning, staffing planning, advertising and promotions planning.
2) Organizing resources to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion. Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and file systems and re-organizing businesses.
3) Leading, including to set direction for the organization, groups and individuals and also influence people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision, values, mission and / or goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management to pursue that direction.
4) Controlling, or coordinating, including the organization’s systems, processes and structures to reach effectively and efficiently reach goals and objectives. This includes ongoing collection of feedback, and monitoring and adjustment of systems, processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financial controls, policies and procedures, performance management processes and measures to avoid risks.
Common Terms, Levels and Roles in Management
It helps to be acquainted with this information about management because, even among experienced managers, there are different interpretations. What is most important is that you come up with your own interpretations and be able to explain them to others with whom you work. See
Common Terms and Roles in Management
Different Views of Management
Another view is that “management” is getting things done through others. Yet another view, quite apart from the traditional view, asserts that the job of management is to support employee’s efforts to be fully productive members of the organizations and citizens of the community.
To most employees, the term “management” probably means the group of people (executives and other managers) who are primarily responsible for making decisions in the organization. In a nonprofit, the term “management” might refer to all or any of the activities of the Board of Directors, executive director and/or program directors.
Some writers, teachers and practitioners assert that the above view is rather outmoded and that management needs to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. They also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people assert that this really isn’t a change in the management functions, rather it’s re-emphasizing certain aspects of management.
Is Leading Different Than Managing?
There seems to be an increasing number of perspectives that leading is different than managing. They explain that perspective with phrases like “Leaders do the right things, and managers do things right” or “Leaders lead people and managers manage resources”. See the View That Leading is Different Than Managing. There are others who disagree with that view and agree with a more traditional view as included above. Also see View That Separating “Leading” from “Managing” Can Be Destructive.
3. Rukh, H., & Qadeer, F. (2018). Diagnosing culture of public organization utilizing competing values framework: A mixed methods approach. Pakistan. (file attached on PDF)


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