Chapter7and8 | Biology homework help


1. What is the central dogma of biology using DNA, RNA and proteins?
2. Compare and contrast a plasmid in a prokaryotic cell with the chromosomes of a prokaryotic cell. Use at least three significant features, for example what kind of information is stored in each type of DNA molecule.
3. Succinctly explain the difference between the leading and lagging strand on the DNA replication diagram.  How does the direction in which DNA pol connect nucleotides lead to the differences? 
4. Name and explain three functions of methylation which occurs after DNA replication. 
5. How does the initiation and termination of transcription differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? 
6. How soon after the mRNA is synthesized is it ready for translation in the ribosomes?   Is there a difference in this process between eukaryotes and prokaryotes, if so describe that difference.
7. A mutation is a change in the nucleotide base sequence of a gene, so write out the central dogma of molecular biology.   Highlight the part of that process that corresponds to where the genes are. 
8. A point mutation  involves change in a single nucleotide, use a short sequence of bases to illustrate substitution, insertion and deletion. How do you know if the mutation will be silent, nonsense or missense? 
9. Explain the lac operon and why is it considered inducible?
10. Find one example of a pathogen known to use riboswitches to become more virulent at body temperature.
11.  to eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits in humans, animals, plants and microbes.
12. to combine the beneficial traits of two or more organisms to create a new more valuable organism. 
13. to create cells that synthesize products humans need. 
14.  Explain and describe one physical and one chemical mutagen and its application. 
15. Explain how reverse transcriptase differs from RNA polymerase.  Give one example of an application of reverse transcriptase in recombinant DNA technology. 
16.  If each letter of the keyboard represents a base in DNA, how many keys does the keyboard require? How does this means of DNA synthesis differ from DNA replication in the cell? 
17. What is the genetic code, how might a synthetic nucleotide be used to determine which amino acid corresponds to which codon? 
18. Give an example of a probe with a fluorescent tag that will be used to locate a gene associated with an aggressive form of breast cancer. 
19. Compare and contrast blunt and sticky ends, and give one example of each type of restriction enzyme.
20. Explain one risk of a viral vector that inserts itself into a necessary gene and causes a mutation. 
21. Explain how a subunit vaccine is designed using  genes from a pathogen and a viral vector? 
22. Explain one advantage and one disadvantage of the TBV approach for controlling the spread of arboviruses. 
23. Does the public have any control over the use of gene drives to alter species in the ecosystem for public health concerns? 


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