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Running Head: ETHICS 2
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1. According to Sommers, one of the main problems today in America is that the higher educational institutions that are colleges and universities students are only taught on social policy and that there is no attention on private morality, which she describes that is very important to be taught in school and for students to understand private morality rather than being taught solely on social policy. Sommer states that it is important to deal with both morality that is private and social morality. She explains that her colleagues fail to agree and disapprove of what she says and that she wasted efforts on pushing bourgeois morality. She also explains that nowadays, there have been so many students cheating on their assignments, which is a big concern to her.
She insists that higher institutions should add on their syllabus on morality private morality. Students should be taught about honesty, honor, private decency, personal responsibility, self-deception, cruelty or selfishness, hypocrisy, and many others. She also states that social morality is just half of the moral life and that the other half is private morality “social morality is only half of the moral life; the other half is private morality” (Christina Hoff Sommers, 1992). Her basic answer to this issue is that students also be taught private morality together with social morality, which will be of immense help to them. She suggests that teachers in educational institutions should assist kids in being acquainted with their moral heritage in philosophy, literature, and religion.
2. In her lecture, she starts by explaining how we can turn normative laws into descriptive laws through the Aristotle method. Normative commitments are defined as the things that show one how things need to be done. In her lecture, Tamar defines normative laws as the laws that shows one how thing needs to be done and then she explains descriptive laws as laws that influence people directly which are actual “so normative laws express summative judgments about the way things ought to be” (PHIL, 2021). In her lecture, she explains Aristotle’s method of turning normative laws into descriptive laws. She states that habits are a tool that can be used in turning normative commitments into descriptive laws; she states that normative commitment is how the world should be and that descriptive laws are how the world is in reality.
3. In my view, I can say that it is fair how Gendler explains that virtue ethics is a type of human programming. According to Aristotle, he feels that arguments attract logic, and they may work in unusual circumstances, and it does not work all the time. The behavior of a human becomes a matter of choice with the thoughts that encompass the need for virtue ethics. The issues of rationality, together with arguments, assist human beings in making the appropriate choices.
4. Sommer argues that educational institutions today do not concentrate on private morality but instead concentrate on the social policy, which according to her two, should be taught equally as private morality is half of moral life. In Gendler’s lecture, she tries to explain to the students how virtue ethics becomes part of us. I think that her approach does not align with what Professor Sommer states on what needs to be taught in school. Gendler emphasizes her teaching on social policy alone, which Sommer is against, and she does not teach the students on private morality. Sommer states that social morality should be taught together with private morality, which is not the case in Gendler’s lecture. In her lecture, there is nothing about private morality that is taught, which is what Sommer is against.
5. One of Sommer’s analyses and proposals that I find convincing is how she states how schools only concentrate on social policy and give no attention to private morality. She explained very well how schools do not concentrate on this topic, but in a real sense, it is affecting students. It is true that most schools today have so many cases of cheating, and if schools emphasize private morality, then this issue can be mitigated.


Christina Hoff Sommers. (1992, February 2). Teaching the virtues — The forerunner. The Forerunner — Home.

PHIL. (2021). PHIL 181 – Lecture 9 – Virtue and habit I | Open Yale courses. Welcome | Open Yale Courses.


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