Exam 3 Biology 1307 SOLUTION 100% A+

Exam 3 Biology 1307

True or False. All protists are eukaryotic.

Chloroplasts arose via _____.
endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates
endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria
endosymbiosis of fungi
endosymbiosis of euglenids

According to the endosymbiosis theory, how many membranes should a mitochondrion have?

You are given an unknown organism to identify. It is unicellular and heterotrophic. It is motile, using many short extensions of the cytoplasm. It has well-developed organelles and two nuclei, one large and one small. This organism is most likely to be a ________.
slime mold

Which of the following statements is consistent with the assertion that protists are paraphyletic?
There is no common set of synapomorphies that define a protist
Protists all share a common set of synapomorphies.
Protists are all more primitive than land plants and animals.
Protists do not share a single common ancestor.

Encouraging the growth (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may help reduce global warming because _____.
the increased oxygen consumption by large populations of photosynthetic protists will increase photosynthesis in land plants
photosynthetic protists are primary consumers in many marine food chains
photosynthetic protists fix atmospheric carbon dioxide, decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels

 Encouraging the growth (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may help reduce global warming because ________.

A) photosynthetic protists are primary consumers in many marine food chains

B) photosynthetic protists fix atmospheric carbon dioxide, decreasing atmospheric carbon

dioxide levels

C) the increased oxygen consumption by large populations of photosynthetic protists will increase photosynthesis in land plants

D) photosynthetic protists would release a lot of oxygen, and fertilizing them would increase levels of oxygen in the atmosphere

Which of these taxa contains species that produce potent toxins that can cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and poison humans?
red algae

Which of the following might be a result of adding a secondary consumer to the aquatic ecosystem in the accompanying illustration?
a decrease in the number of primary consumers
a decrease in the population of decomposers
an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide
an increase in the population of scavengers
a decrease in the carbon sink

The Irish potato famine was caused by an organism that belongs to which species?
Trichomonas vaginalis
Giardia spp.

Which of the following eukaryotic lineages contains species that all lack functioning mitochondria?

Pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis and have the ability to change their shape are generally characteristic of which group?
slime molds

Which of the following is a synapomorphy that defines all green algae and land plants?
Seeds                     B. Vascular tissue        C.  Cell walls   D,  Photosynthetic chloroplasts

One of the fish in your aquarium dies. Adding which protist to the water would allow you to avoid flushing the dead fish by speeding its decay?
an apicomplexan
a dinoflagellata
a water mold
a ciliate
a euglenid

According to the endosymbiotic theory, why was it adaptive for the larger (host) cell to keep the engulfed cell alive, rather than digesting it as food?
The engulfed cell provided the host cell with adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The engulfed cell provided the host cell with carbon dioxide.
The engulfed cell allowed the host cell to metabolize glucose.
The host cell was able to survive anaerobic conditions with the engulfed cell alive.
The host cell would have been poisoned if it had digested the engulfed cell.

Alternation of generations occurs in some protists. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of events for this mode of reproduction?
gametophyte → gamete → fusion → sporophyte → spore → gametophyte
sporophyte → spore fusion → gametophyte → gamete → sporophyte
gametophyte → fusion → sporophyte → spore → gamete → gametophyte
gamete → fusion → gametophyte →spore → sporophyte → gamete

In examining a protist, you notice that it lacks a cell wall, and has movement with cytoplasmic streaming. These data allow you to infer that the species belongs to which of the following protist groups?

Chagas disease is spread by the “kissing bug”.  This disease affect 16-18 million people around the world and causes about 50,000 deaths annually and is caused by which protist?
Trichomonas vaginalis
Trypanosoma cruzi

Dysentery is caused by _______________ and causes severe diarrhea.  It is mostly prevalent in countries with a warm climate and poor sanitary conditions.  In some places it is known as “Montezuma’s revenge”.  Which of the following protists causes dysentery
Entamoeba histolytica
Phytophthora infestans

What impact will the loss of land plants have on the soil?
Increase soil stability
Increase soil erosion
Increase nutrient levels     
 Decrease surface temperature

The major function of the medicinal compounds in plants is to _____.
as defense against herbivores
attract pollinators for seed dispersal
attract insects and birds to spread seeds and fruits
defend the plant against microbes

The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably _____.
liverworts and mosses        B. green algae  C. kelp (brown alga)    D. cyanobacteria

What evidence indicates the movement of plants from water to land?
sporopollenin to inhibit evaporation from leaves
loss of structures that produce spores
remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells
waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves

Which of these time intervals, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)?
carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and ferns
rise and diversification of angiosperms
colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses
extensive growth of gymnosperm forests

Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. Which of the following features is unique to them and helps account for their success?
embryos enclosed within seed coats
sperm cells without flagella
fruits enclosing seeds which contain the plant embryo
wind pollination

Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because _____.
bacteria are not made of cells
protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
protists eat bacteria
protists are photosynthetic

The term gymnosperm refers to plants _____.
with “naked seeds” that do not produce flowers
that are non-vascular
that flower
with seeds protected within a fruit

What trait gives seeds an advantage over spores?
Protected from the environment
Small in size
Contain nutrients

Which of the following was a challenge to the survival of the first land plants?
too much sunlight
a shortage of carbon dioxide
animal predation

_____ are angiosperms.
Fiddlehead ferns
Sphagnum mosses
Pine trees

Primary producers such as plants and green algae ____________.
Convert solar energy (light) to chemical energy (sugars)
Decompose decaying material in soil to produce energy
Consume other organisms to produce chemical energy (sugars) and solar energy (light)
Produce CO2 by performing photosynthesis

Plants provide many ecosystem services including production of oxygen and holding the soil.  What is an ecosystem?
All the organisms or biotic factors in a particular area
All the living and nonliving components in a particular area
The nonliving or abiotic components in a particular area
All plants and animals in a given region

Stoma (plural: stomata) are____________.
Small openings called pores surrounded by specialized guard cells
Watertight sealants produced by plants to avoid desiccation
Specialized organelles in plant cells to perform photosynthesis
Modified leaves in a plant to avoid predation by herbivores

Flowers, the reproductive organ of a flowering plant, has two key reproductive structures called:
Seed and pistil
Stamen and fruit
Stamen and pistil
Seed and anther

The three main ways in which pollen is transported from plant to plant or flower to flower are:
Animals, wind, water
Wind, fungi, water
Animals, bees, wind
Fungi, water, insects

_____________ is a process by which pollen is transferred in plants.
Pollen grains

True or False.  The female part of the flower is the stamen.
True           B.   False

True or False.  The main function of the endosperm is to provide nutrients for the embryo plant.
True           B.  False

True or False.  Plants and not algae are the main primary producers in Earth’s oceans.
True           B.   False

True or False.  Bryophytes such as mosses lack vascular tissue (xylem and phloem).
True           B.  False

Root hairs are most important to a plant because they ________.
anchor a plant in the soil
store starches
increase the surface area for absorption
provide a habitat for nitrogen-fixing bacteria
contain xylem tissue

42. As fuels, wood and coal ________.

A) are the main fuel sources in industrialized countries today.

B) are both formed from living or fossil plants.

C) are both formed under pressure deep in the Earth.

D) are sustainable as they are even now being made at high rates.

43.  Molecular phylogenies show all land plants are a monophyletic group. This suggests ________.

A) there were many different transitions from aquatic to terrestrial habitats

B) wind-pollinated plants arose first

C) land plants have undergone a diversification since they first colonized terrestrial habitats

D) there was a single transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats

44. Which of these time intervals, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)?

A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forests

B) Silurian-Devonian explosion with fossils of plant lineages containing most of the major morphological innovations

C) colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses

D) rise and diversification of angiosperms

E) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes

45. Why are seedless vascular plants considered paraphyletic rather than monophyletic?

A) Some of the groups within the seedless vascular plants are more closely related to each other than to other groups (such as Lycophyta).

B) They share a more recent common ancestor with seeded plants than they do with the non-vascular plants.

C) All of the groups contained within the seedless vascular plants do not have the same ancestor.

D) The group includes their common ancestor but also the seeded descendants of that same ancestor.

46. Which set contains the most closely related terms?

A) megasporangium, megaspore, pollen, ovule

B) microsporangium, microspore, egg, ovary

C) megasporangium, megaspore, egg, ovule

D) microsporangium, microspore, carpel, ovary

47. In the process of alternation of generations, the ________.

A) sporophyte is haploid and produces gametes

B) sporophyte is diploid and produces spores

C) gametophyte is haploid and produces spores

D) gametophyte is diploid and produces gametes

E) spores unite to form a zygote

48.  Where are you LEAST likely to see green algae?

A) as pink snow in the mountains in summer

B) growing symbiotically with fungi in lichens or with some invertebrate animals

C) growing independently on dry rock in meadows

D) growing independently on wet rock in ponds and lakes

E) floating in seas and oceans

49. When a mosquito infected with Plasmodium first bites a human, the Plasmodium ________.

A) gametes fuse, forming an oocyst

B) cells infect the human liver cells

C) cells cause lysing of the human red blood cells

D) oocyst undergoes meiosis

50. Carbon dioxide enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the ________.

A) cuticle

B) epidermal trichomes

C) stoma

D) phloem

E) walls of guard cells

51. Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?

A) root cap

B) root hairs

C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem

D) storage roots

E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem

52. When an animal cell is placed in a hypotonic solution and water enters the cell via osmosis, the volume of the cell increases until it bursts. This does NOT happen to plant cells, because ________.

A) they have large central vacuoles, which provide abundant space for storage of incoming water

B) the composition of their plasma membranes differs from that of animal-cell plasma membranes in a way that provides much greater strength

C) they have cell walls, which prevent the entry of water by osmosis

D) they have cell walls, which provide pressure to counteract the pressure of the incoming water

E) certain gated channel proteins embedded in their plasma membranes open as osmotic pressure decreases, allowing excess water to leave the cell

53. Compared to a cell with few aquaporins in its membrane, a cell containing many aquaporins will ________.

A) have a faster rate of osmosis

B) have a lower water potential

C) have a higher water potential

D) have a faster rate of active transport

E) be flaccid

54. Which cells in a root form a protective barrier to the vascular system where all materials must move through the symplast?

A) pericycle

B) cortex

C) epidermis

D) endodermis

E) exodermis

55. You are conducting an experiment on plant growth. You take a plant fresh from the soil that weighs 5 kilograms (kg). Then you dry the plant overnight and determine the dry weight to be 1 kg. Of this dry weight, how much would you expect to be made up of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen?

A) 1 gram

B) 4 grams

C) 40 grams

D) 960 grams

E) 1 kg

56. Which of the following statements about essential nutrients are TRUE? Essential nutrients ________.

I.    are necessary for plant growth and reproduction

II.   are required for a specific structure or metabolic function

III. cannot be synthesized by a plant

IV. are produced by symbiotic bacteria

A) I and IV

B) II, III, and IV

C) I, II, and III

D) I, II, III, and IV

57. Which criteria allow biologists to divide chemicals into macronutrients and micronutrients?

A) molecular weight of the element or compound

B) the quantities of each required by plants

C) how they are used in metabolism

D) whether or not they are essential for plant growth

58. A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if the ________.

A) mineral is a micronutrient

B) mineral is very mobile within the plant

C) mineral is required for chlorophyll synthesis

D) mineral is a macronutrient

E) older leaves are in direct sunlight

59.Which of the following elements correctly pairs an essential element in plants with its function?

A) nitrogen–component of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, coenzymes

B) magnesium–component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP

C) phosphorus–cofactor functioning in protein synthesis

D) sulfur–component of DNA; activates some enzymes

60.Why is nitrogen fixation an essential process?

A) Fixed nitrogen is often the limiting factor in plant growth.

B) Nitrogen fixation is very expensive in terms of metabolic energy.

C) Nitrogen-fixing capacity can be genetically engineered.

D) None of the above

61.Nitrogen fixation is a process that ________.

A) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials

B) converts ammonia to ammonium

C) releases nitrate from the rock substrate

D) converts nitrogen gas into ammonia

E) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials and converts ammonia to ammonium

62.Which of the following, if used as a fertilizer, would be most immediately available for plant uptake?

A) NH3

B) N2

C) CN2H2

D) NO3-

63. In what way do nitrogen compounds differ from other minerals needed by plants? Only nitrogen ________.

A) can be lost from the soil

B) can be provided by symbiotic bacteria

C) is needed for protein synthesis

D) is held by cation exchange capacity in the soil

E) can be absorbed by root hairs

64. What is the correct sequence of steps during infection of plants by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

A) Rhizobia release Nod factors; roots release flavonoids; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.

B) Rhizobia release flavonoids; roots release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.

C) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex.

D) Roots release flavonoids; rhizobia release Nod factors; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; infection thread grows into the root cortex; nodule forms.

E) Nodule forms; infection thread grows into the root cortex; rhizobia proliferate inside of root hair; rhizobia release flavonoids and Nod factors.

65. Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant’s supply of ________.

A) water

B) carbohydrates

C) lipids and steroids

D) nitrogen, nutrient, and other minerals

66. Which of the following statements about nitrogen fixation in root nodules is correct?

A) The plant contributes the nitrogenase enzyme.

B) The process is relatively inexpensive in terms of ATP costs.

C) Leghemoglobin helps maintain a low oxygen concentration within the nodule.

D) The process tends to deplete nitrogen compounds in the soil.

E) The bacteria of the nodule are autotrophic.

67. Most of the dry mass of a plant is derived from ________.

A) NO3- and CO2

B) K+ and CO2

C) PO4 and K+

D) H2O and K+

E) H2O and CO2

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