Which of the following best describes what victim precipitation means?
A. The offender carefully selects victims with certain characteristics.
B. The offender lacks a mens rea.
C. The victim somehow caused his or her own victimization.
D. The victim instigated criminal prosecution.
Question 2 of 20
Using Stephen Schafer’s victim precipitation typology, which of the following victim categories bears responsibility for his or her misfortune?
A. Political victims
B. Socially weak victims
C. Biologically weak victims
D. Provocative victims
Question 3 of 20
The idea of retribution:
A. was started by Stephen Schafer.
B. is that the offender should suffer in proportion to the degree of harm caused.
C. is the feeling that the victim played an active role in his or her victimization.
D. was begun by feudal barons.
Question 4 of 20
Mendelsohn classified victims according to:
A. their culpability in a criminal act.
B. their biological traits.
C. their ethnicity.
D. their drug addictions.
Question 5 of 20
According to Wolfgang, which of the following plays a major role in victim-precipitated homicide?
B. “Crack” cocaine
D. Interpersonal relationships and escalation
Question 6 of 20
All of the following are types of victims in Mendelsohn’s general victimology EXCEPT:
A. victims of a criminal.
B. victims of technology.
C. victims of the unnatural environment.
D. victims of the social environment.
Question 7 of 20
Which of the following persons is sometimes credited with being the “father of victimology”?
A. Hans von Hentig
B. Beniamin Mendelsohn
C. Stephen Schafer
D. Marvin E. Wolfgang
Question 8 of 20
Who of the following caused a giant uproar over an empirical analysis of rape victims?
A. L.A. Curtis
B. Franklin and Franklin
C. Marvin Wolfgang
D. Menachem Amir
Question 9 of 20
Which of the following persons is associated with the emergence of the field of victimology?
A. Edwin Sutherland
B. Hans von Hentig
C. Robert K. Merton
D. Emile Durkheim
Question 10 of 20
According to the text, which of the following was NOT a reason for the emergence of the victim movement?
A. The pharmaceutical industry
B. The women’s movement
C. The children’s rights movement
D. The growing crime problem
Question 11 of 20
What was von Hentig’s main contribution to the field of victimology?
A. He suggested that rape victims had a subconscious desire to be raped.
B. He proposed the criminal-victim dyad, which looked at the role the victim played in his or her own victimization.
C. He was the founder of what is known today as “critical victimology.”
D. He discovered that there was a strong interpersonal relationship between victims and offenders.
Question 12 of 20
Prior to the Middle Ages, the concept of lex talionis prevailed. This concept included:
D. a victim injustice system.
Question 13 of 20
The first state in the United States to establish victim compensation was __________ in 1965.
A. New York
Question 14 of 20
Totally unacceptable or immoral behavior is referred to as:
A. mala prohibita.
B. lex talionis.
C. ex parte.
D. mala in se.
Question 15 of 20
Marvin E. Wolfgang was responsible for which of the following?
A. He identified several factors as typical of victim-precipitated homicides.
B. He coined the term “victimology.”