Week 4 correction systems midterm

Question 1 

1. Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?

A.    a. 1 million

B.    b. 2.3 million

C.    c. 3 million

D.    d. 4.3 million

2 points   

Question 2 

2. Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?

A.    a. Emile Durkheim

B.    b. Cesare Beccaria

C.    c. Travis Hirshchi

D.    d. Cesare Lombroso

2 points   

Question 3 

3. Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.

A.    a. Political conservatives

B.    b. independents

C.    c. religious groups

D.    d. political liberals

2 points   

Question 4 

4. Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?

A.    a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.

B.    b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.

C.    c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.

D.    d. All of these

2 points   

Question 5 

5. The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include

A.    a. secure and sanitary conditions.

B.    b. nonsystematic inspections.

C.    c. fees for inmates.

D.    d. a continued regimen.

2 points   

Question 6 

6. How was the existing system of justice altered during the Enlightenment?

A.    a. People reconsidered the administration of law and redefined corrections.

B.    b. During this period the classical school of criminology emerged, with its insistence on a rational link between the gravity of the crime and the severity of the punishment.

C.    c. The social contract and utilitarianism emphasized limitations on the government and the need to erect a system of punishments so that people would be deterred from crime.

D.    d. All of these

2 points   

Question 7 

7. The __________ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.

A.    a. congregate system

B.    b. assemble system

C.    c. separate confinement system

D.    d. segregated confinement system

2 points   

Question 8 

8. During the Progressive Reform Era, two main strategies were implemented. They included improving conditions in social environments and ______________.

A.    a. feeding inmates better food.

B.    b. ensuring prisoners were not in solitude.

C.    c. reintegrating inmates into society.

D.    d. rehabilitating individual offenders.

2 points   

Question 9 

9. The Military Commissions Act (MCA) __________ the ability of “unlawful enemy combatants” to file a writ of habeas corpus.

A.    a. permits

B.    b. fosters

C.    c. enhances

D.    d. eliminates

2 points   

Question 10 

10. Which court decision held the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?

A.    a. Wolff v. McDonnell

B.    b. Holt v. Sarver

C.    c. Estelle v. Gamble

D.    d. Pugh v. Locke

2 points   

Question 11 

11. Which case allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property and the denial of basic rights:

A.    a. Cooper v. Pate

B.    b. Terry v. Ohio

C.    c. Carroll v US

D.    d. Gregg v GA

2 points   

Question 12 

12. In Boumediene v. Bush, the Court ruled the detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to:

A.    a. a lawyer.

B.    b. challenge the conditions of their confinement.

C.    c. one hour of exercise a day.

D.    d. file writs of habeas corpus.

2 points   

Question 13 

13. According to the Supreme Court, the term “totality of conditions” may be legally interpreted as:

A.    a. cruel and unusual punishment.

B.    b. unfair

C.    c. unreasonable.

D.    d. irrational.

2 points   

Question 14 

14. The right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in which Amendment?

A.    a. First

B.    b. Fourth

C.    c. Eighth

D.    d. Fourteenth

2 points   

Question 15 

15. Experts usually cite _________ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.

A.    a. plea-bargaining pressures

B.    b. community pressure

C.    c. eyewitness error

D.    d. all of these

2 points   

Question 16 

16. Probationary sentences emphasize guidance and ______________ in the community.

A.    a. employment

B.    b. educational attainment

C.    c. supervision

D.    d. family connectivity

2 points   

Question 17 

17. In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:

A.    a. mandatory.

B.    b. discretionary.

C.    c. ridiculous.

D.    d. binding.

2 points   

Question 18 

18. Restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?

A.    a. Victim and community

B.    b. Offender and the state

C.    c. Law and justice

D.    d. Fairness and equity

2 points   

Question 19 

19. Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?

A.    a. Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the times

B.    b. It is able to train staff for a variety of roles

C.    c. It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and services

D.    d. All of these.

2 points   

Question 20 

20. Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?

A.    a. Probation

B.    b. Supervision conditions

C.    c. Home detention

D.    d. Presentence investigation

2 points   

Question 21 

21. Between 1200 and 1827, English law:

A.    a. discriminated against the upper social classes.

B.    b. strove for equality in all matters.

C.    c. discriminated against monks, nuns, and priests.

D.    d. discriminated in favor of the upper social classes.

2 points   

Question 22 

22. Recognizance was first used in court to recognize a formally recorded ___________to perform some act entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community.

A.    a. indebtedness

B.    b. obligation

C.    c. appreciation

D.    d. debt

2 points   

Question 23 

23. Judges may use a range of ________________ sanctions from those exerting a low level of control to those exerting a high level of control.

A.    a. truth in sentencing

B.    b. determinate

C.    c. intermediate

D.    d. mandatory

2 points   

Question 24 

24. The concept of community corrections is best understood as a goal. That goal clearly is to:

A.    a. save money.

B.    b. reduce reliance on prisons.

C.    c. reduce crime.

D.    d. both save money and reduce reliance on prisons.

2 points   

Question 25 

25. The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called:

A.    a. penal sanctions.

B.    b. probation.

C.    c. primary sanctions.

D.    d. intermediate sanctions.

2 points   

Question 26 

26. A major criticism of probation, as traditionally practiced, is that:

A.    a. it is too impersonal.

B.    b. the probation officers don’t really care about the client.

C.    c. it is inadequate for a large number of offenders.

D.    d. there aren’t enough offenders to make it work.

2 points   

Question 27 

27. Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:

A.    a. intensive supervision program

B.    b. presentence investigation

C.    c. supervision intensive program

D.    d. individual program supervision

2 points   

Question 28 

28. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:

A.    a. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.

B.    b. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.

C.    c. emotional instability, which is exacerbated by the jail experience.

D.    d. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.

2 points   

Question 29 

29. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:

A.    a. unsecured bail.

B.    b. percentage bail.

C.    c. forfeit bail.

D.    d. release on recognizance (ROR).

2 points   

Question 30 

30. __________ is a drug that inhibits drinking.

A.    a. Methadone

B.    b. Cocaine

C.    c. Antabuse

D.    d. Malabuse

2 points   

Question 31 

31. America’s oldest prison was built in 1798. This prison was located in what city in New Jersey:

A.    a. Dalton

B.    b. Trenton

C.    c. Wilmington

D.    d. Wilbur

2 points   

Question 32 

32. The prison design most often used for female and juvenile inmates is:

A.    a. Radial design

B.    b. telephone pole design

C.    c. campus style

D.    d. courtyard style

2 points   

Question 33 

33. The __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.

A.    a. retribution

B.    b. incapacitation

C.    c. rehabilitation

D.    d. reintegration

2 points   

Question 34 

34. At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:

A.    a. crime control.

B.    b. rehabilitation.

C.    c. treatment.

D.    d. restitution.

2 points   

Question 35 

35. Most prisons employ a __________ model.

A.    a. rehabilitative

B.    b. reintegration

C.    c. retributive

D.    d. custodial

2 points   

Question 36 

36. According to sociologists, the “big house” image of the American prison has:

A.    a. ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.

B.    b. provided us with a deeper understanding of the modern prison.

C.    c. spawned a great deal of humanitarian reform in the eyes of the public.

D.    d. created interest in the operations of the modern prison among the general public.

2 points   

Question 37 

37. A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in __________ prisons.

A.    a. maximum security

B.    b. medium security

C.    c. minimum security

D.    d. super max

2 points   

Question 38 

38. With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe offenders have had it too soft, resulting in:

A.    a. the institution of strict regimes in prisons.

B.    b. the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.

C.    c. an increase in the number of people in prison.

D.    d. all of these.

2 points   

Question 39 

39. Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:

A.    a. the FBI.

B.    b. the Secret Service.

C.    c. the Marshal’s Service.

D.    d. none of these.

2 points   

Question 40 

40. Prisons designed to hold the “toughest of the tough” are called:

A.    a. maximum security prisons.

B.    b. solitary confinement.

C.    c. custodial confinement.

D.    d. super-max prisons.

2 points   

Question 41 

41. In prison, gangs are organized primarily to:

A.    a. control an institution’s drug trade.

B.    b. control gambling and extortion within the institution.

C.    c. control debt-collection rackets within the institution.

D.    d. all of these.

2 points   

Question 42 

42. A set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help to define for inmates the characteristics associated with the model prisoner is known as the:

A.    a. institutional code.

B.    b. informal code.

C.    c. prison code.

D.    d. inmate code.

2 points   

Question 43 

43. The adaptive role within prison where inmates see the period in prison as a temporary break in their criminal careers is known as: When an inmate views his/her incarceration as a temporary break in their criminal career, their adaptive role is known as:

A.    a. jailing.

B.    b. gleaning.

C.    c. hustling.

D.    d. doing time.

2 points   

Question 44 

44. Because inmates are not allowed to carry any currency, the primary method of exchange in prison is:

A.    a. narcotics.

B.    b. cigarettes.

C.    c. “bug juice.”

D.    d. sex.

2 points   

Question 45 

45. Correctional leaders have found the best way to weaken prison gangs is to:

A.    a. negotiate between gang members.

B.    b. place gang members in solitary confinement.

C.    c. transfer gang members to another institution.

D.    d. all of these.

2 points   

Question 46 

46. Which of the following is not a purpose of gangs in prison?

A.    a. protection

B.    b. extortion

C.    c. religion

D.    d. camaraderie

2 points   

Question 47 

47. Inmates who fall victim to sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be:

A.    a. a gang leader

B.    b. correction officer

C.    c. elderly

D.    d. not affiliated with a gang

2 points   

Question 48 

48. In prison terminology the “fish” is a(n):

A.    a. career criminal.

B.    b. newcomer.

C.    c. gang member.

D.    d. elderly inmate.

2 points   

Question 49 

49. A principal feature in prison society which reinforces the norms and roles of the social system and influences the nature of interpersonal relationships is known as:

A.    a. cable TV.

B.    b. programming.

C.    c. the yard.

D.    d. an underground economy.

2 points   

Question 50 

50. In 2003 the Prison Rape Elimination Act was created in order to:

A.    a. gather national statistics on prison rape.

B.    b. make prison rape illegal.

C.    c. honor a rape victim.

D.    d. support prisoner’s rights.

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